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Sometimes we need to send out email messages based on the results of automated analytical processes. The blastula package makes it easy to send out HTML emails from R that are easier on the eyes. In doing so, we can take advantage of both Markdown and R code when composing our email text.

Installation Requirements

The blastula package requires the availability of openssl.

On OS X, it is recommended that homebrew be used to install openssl:

brew install openssl

On RHEL, Fedora, or CentOS, openssl-devel is necessary:

sudo yum install openssl-devel

With Ubuntu or Debian, we need libssl-dev:

sudo apt-get install -y libssl-dev

Sending an email message

Here’s an example that shows a basic workflow for composing the message, previewing the content, creating optional on-disk credentials for email, and sending out the message.

These four functions can help us do just that:

Some helper functions allow for easy insertion of HTML fragments into the message body. These are:

When you compose an email, you can put character objects from the global workspace into the message content. Here, I’ll create a nicely formatted date/time string (current_date_time) with the package’s add_readable_time() function, and assign a link to a web image to an object (img_link).


# Get a nicely formatted date/time string
current_date_time <- add_readable_time()

# Assign a very long image URL to `img_link`
img_link <-

Now, we can use the compose_email() to compose the email! There are two main arguments here, body and footer. You can supply markdown text to each of these. All other valid markdown conventions should render to valid HTML.

The insertion of HTML fragments or text can be performed by enclosing valid R code inside of curly braces ({...}). Below the image URL (as part of the ![...](...) markdown link construction) is referenced to the img_link object from the global workspace. Note also that {current_date_time} references the current_date_time character object generated earlier via the add_readable_time() function. The end result is the insertion of the date/time string into the footer of the email. (Alternatively, add_readable_time() could have been called directly.)

We can also supply variables in the compose_email() function directly. For example, the {sender} part references an object not in the global workspace. Rather, it refers the named argument sender = "Mike" in the function call. The order of searching is from within the function first, then the search moves to variables in the global environment.


email_object <-
    body = "
  ## Hiya! This is an email message. Exciting Right?
  Enjoy it. And this here image:

  ![The alt text]({img_link} \"The title\")
  **Yeah!** I seriously hope that you enjoy this \\
  message and the good vibes it will bring to you \\
  and yours.
  Peace out,

    footer = 
  "Brought to you by Smile AG on {current_date_time}",
    sender = "Mike")

Some more notes on style are useful here. The \\ is a helpful line continuation marker. It’ll help you break long lines up when composing but won’t introduce line breaks or new paragraphs. I recommend formatting like above with few indents so as not to induce the quote-type formatting. Any literal quotation marks should be escaped using a single \. Blank lines separating blocks of text result in new paragraphs. And again, any valid R code can be enclosed inside {...} (e.g., {Sys.Date()}).

After creating the email message, you’ll most certainly want to look at it to ensure that the formatting is what you want it to be. This is done with the preview_email() function.


# Preview the email
preview_email(email = email_object)

…and this is what I saw:

I’d previously set up my email credentials in a file using the create_email_creds_file() function. Here’s an example of how one might create a creds file as a hidden file in the home directory (~).

# Create a credentials file to facilitate
# the sending of email messages
  user = "",
  password = "<user_password>",
  host = "",
  port = 465,
  sender = "",
  creds_file_name = "~/.e_creds")

You can also use preset SMTP settings. For example, if you’d like to send email through Gmail, we can supply provider = gmail to not have to worry about SMTP settings:

# Create a credentials file for sending
# email through Gmail
  user = "",
  password = "<user_password>",
  provider = "gmail",
  sender = "Sender Name")

This will create a hidden credentials file in the working directory, the name of which is based on the provider (you can optionally specify the name with the creds_file_name argument, as in the first example).

One additional note about using Gmail to send out email: you must first change account settings to let less secure apps use your account. Details on how to make this account-level change can be found in this support document.

Having generated that file, you can use the send_email_out() function to send the email. I sent the email just to myself but do note that the to argument can accept a vector of email addresses for mass mailings. Alternatively, one can set a number of environment variables and use Sys.getenv() calls for email credentials arguments in the send_email_out() statement.


# Sending email using a credentials file
  message = email_object,
  from = "",
  to = "",
  subject = "This is NOT junk mail.",
  creds_file = "~/.e_creds")
# Sending email using environment variables
  message = email_object,
  from = "",
  to = "",
  subject = "This is NOT junk mail.",
  sender = Sys.getenv("BLS_SENDER"),
  host = Sys.getenv("BLS_HOST"),
  port = Sys.getenv("BLS_PORT"),
  user = Sys.getenv("BLS_USER_NAME"),
  password = Sys.getenv("BLS_PASSWORD"))

This is how the message appeared when received in the email client:

The underlying HTML/CSS is meant to display properly across a wide range of email clients and webmail services.

Adding a table to an email message

You can add HTML tables to the message. Here’s an example using a formattable table generated via its format_table() function.


# Create a data frame
df <- data.frame(
  id = 1:10,
  name = c("Bob", "Ashley", "James", "David", "Jenny", 
           "Hans", "Leo", "John", "Emily", "Lee"), 
  age = c(28, 27, 30, 28, 29, 29, 27, 27, 31, 30),
  grade = c("C", "A", "A", "C", "B", "B", "B", "A", "C", "C"),
  test1_score = c(8.9, 9.5, 9.6, 8.9, 9.1, 9.3, 9.3, 9.9, 8.5, 8.6),
  test2_score = c(9.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.1, 8.9, 8.5, 9.2, 9.3, 9.1, 8.8),
  final_score = c(9, 9.3, 9.4, 9, 9, 8.9, 9.25, 9.6, 8.8, 8.7),
  stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

# Create an HTML table with `format_table()`
formatted_table <-
    x = df,
      age = color_tile("white", "orange"),
      grade = 
          style = x ~ ifelse(
            x == "A", 
            style(color = "green", font.weight = "bold"), NA)), 
      area(col = c(test1_score, test2_score)) ~ normalize_bar("pink", 0.2),
      final_score = 
          style = x ~ style(color = ifelse(rank(-x) <= 3, "green", "gray")),
          x ~ sprintf("%.2f (rank: %02d)", x, rank(-x))),
      registered = 
          style = x ~ style(color = ifelse(x, "green", "red")),
          x ~ icontext(ifelse(x, "ok", "remove"), ifelse(x, "Yes", "No")))
# Create and preview the email message
  body = "

  Here are the grades you've been hounding me \\
  for all this past week. Overall, everyone did \\
  quite well. I'm impressed.

  <br />
  Cheers,<br />The grader") %>%

This is how the email preview appears:

Bear in mind that wider tables can break across the content areas, so, previewing the message is vital (along with recognizing whether recipients will be primarily viewing on mobile or desktop).

Adding a call-to-action (CTA) button to an email message

You can add a CTA button to the message. Simply use the add_cta_button() helper function, which generates an HTML fragment that can be injected into the message. The function can be called either in the global environment (referencing the object cta_button inside {...} as below) or called within the email message body itself (which is less recommended due to readability considerations).


# Create a CTA button as an
# HTML fragment to be included
# in the message
cta_button <-
    url = "",
    text = "Press This Button",
    align = "center")

# Compose the email and include the
# `cta_button` HTML fragment in a
# single line
  body = "

  Below is a call. It's a call to \\
  action. Press it!


  (I really hope you press it.)

  ") %>%

This is how the email preview appears:

Adding a local image to an email message

It’s really a cinch to include images hosted on the Web using the Markdown approach shown earlier. For local image files we can use the add_image() helper function, which creates an HTML fragment that can be placed into the message wherever you’d like the image to appear. Again, this function can be used either in the global environment or within the email message body itself. I’ll point to image that is available in the package.


# Create an HTML fragment that
# contains an image
img_file_path <-
    package = "blastula")

img_file_html <-
    file = img_file_path)

# Include the image in the email
# message body by simply referencing
# the `img_file_html` object
  body = "
  Take a look at this image:


  It is of color bars.
  ") %>%

This is how the email preview appears:

Adding a ggplot plot object to an email message

It’s not at all difficult to insert a ggplot plot into an email message. The function to use for that is add_ggplot(). An example:


# Create a ggplot plot object
plot <- 
    data = mtcars,
      x = disp, y = hp,
      color = wt, size = mpg)) +

# Let's use the `add_ggplot()`
# helper function right inside the
# email message body this time
  body = "
  Take a look at this plot:
  {add_ggplot(plot_object = plot, width = 5, height = 5)}
  It's a nice plot.
  ") %>%

This is how the email preview appears:

Adding HTML tags with inline CSS

You can add custom HTML within the markdown text. This provides an opportunity to style the text using inline CSS. In this example, header text is centered with the text-align style and link text is rendered in the code style using <code> tags.


# Center the header text with some HTML tags, and,
# use the <code> tag for a link
  body = "

  <h2 style=\"text-align:center;\">This Heading is Centered</h2>

  That worked because we can insert HTML tags and \\
  include inline CSS. Check out this webpage for \\
  more information on this topic:

  <code>[CSS Align](</code>

  ") %>%

This is how the email preview appears:

Installation of the package

blastula is used in an R environment. If you don’t have an R installation, it can be obtained from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

The CRAN version of this package can be obtained using the following statement:


You can install the development version of blastula from GitHub using the devtools package.


If you encounter a bug, have usage questions, or want to share ideas to make this package better, feel free to file an issue.

Code of Conduct

Contributor Code of Conduct. By participating in this project you agree to abide by its terms.


MIT © Richard Iannone